The species binomial Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae, and he himself is the lectotype specimen. The generic name Homois a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō “man”, ultimately “earthly being” (Old Latin hemō, a cognate to Old English guma “man”, from PIE dʰǵʰemon-, meaning “earth” or “ground”). The species-name sapiens means “wise” or “sapient”. Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, and that sapiens is the singular form (while there is no word sapien). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human#Etymology_and_definition
Ponder this, people are not born wise, which means that the majority of people never evolve to the point of being human. Plato is essentially describing the philosopher king. The person who can perceive the forms of the good, or the forms of god, with his mind’s eye. What the average person sees is the shadow because they don’t understand the uncorrupted form of the good. Just as the high priest of the cult of the Augure’s does not create the law, the law is real and pre-existent and immutable, the high priest merely explains the law. He is under the law and subject to it.
The Ideas, or the idols are those monads or mints of the original forms of the good. Remember the 3 castes that Plato recommended, the philosopher kings (rulers, sattvic guna), the Guardians (police, military, raja guna), and the slaves (tamas guna, servants). This corresponds with the Indian concept of Moksha or freedom, as long as their is ignorance their is no freedom. The Causal world is the world of the forms. Everything in our world is a duplicate of the causal world, a shadow.
It is the philosopher king that can see where things went wrong, and remedy the problem, and get everything back to good. Other people don’t know why they are doing what they are doing or the consequences that are going to come from their actions. Notice a congruence with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. You are not free until you understand, and until you understand you will continue to create karma for yourself. All action requires the karmic debt of understanding that is why there are natural consequences. To remove consequences is evil and stupid because then their is no learning.
Below is a video by Okko Behrands the foremost expert on Roman law and where it came from, I notice a congruence between all of the other philosophies that is not easily explained away. This is where the very concept of authority came from. All valid western structures of authority follow this original ancient conception.